A review, with 26 refs., is given on two different methods to generate nanostructured surfaces. Many approaches to the structuring of surfaces in the micrometer and nanometer range were undertaken in the last few decades. Most of these technologies, however, are limited to the fabrication of small areas. In this article two methods for the creation of larger areas of structured surfaces are discussed. The 1st approach is based on the self-assembly of ligand-protected Au55 clusters at the phase boundary between water and dichloromethane, with subsequent transfer to a solid substrate. The other strategy employs nanoporous alumina membranes as masks for the imprinting of metal and polymer surfaces. The self-assembly generates surfaces with building blocks of .apprx.2 nm (see Figure) whereas the imprinting method leads to structural units of 10-200 nm.