Water Science & Technology Vol 55 No 8-9 pp 151–158 © IWA Publishing 2007 doi:10.2166/wst.2007.253 [Titel anhand dieser DOI in Citavi-Projekt übernehmen] Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) as optimal method for production of granular activated sludge (GAS) – fluid dynamic investigations B.E. Zima*, L. Díez*, W. Kowalczyk** and A. Delgado* *Lehrstuhl für Strömungsmechanik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstraße 4, 91058 Erlangen, Germany (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org) **Lehrstuhl für Fluidmechanik und Prozessautomation, TU München, Weihenstephaner Steig, 23, 85350 Freising, Germany (E-mail: email@example.com) ABSTRACT Fluid dynamic investigations of multiphase flow (fluid, air, granules) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) are presented. SBR can be considered as an attractive technology for cultivation of granular activated sludge (GAS). Granulation is a complicated process and its mechanism is not fully understood yet. Many factors influence the formation and structure of aerobic granular sludge in a bioreactor. Extracellular polymer substances (EPS) and superficial gas velocity (SGV) play a crucial role for granules formation. Additionally, it is supposed that EPS production is stimulated by mechanical forces. It is also assumed that hydrodynamic effects have a major influence on the formation, shape and size of GAS in SBR under aerobic condition. However, the influence of stress on granulation is poorly investigated. Thus, in the present paper, fluid dynamic investigations of multiphase flow in a SBR, particularly effect of normal and shear strain, are reported. In order to analyse multiphase flow in the SBR, optical in-situ techniques with particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) are implemented. Obtained results show a characteristic flow pattern in a SBR. It is pointed out that additional effects like particle-wall collisions, inter particle collisions, erosion can also affect significantly granules formation.