The background of this research is the fall of the New Order Regime which occurred in 1998, followed closely behind by the creation of local autonomy policy. This policy was issued based on Law Numer 22/1999 (Local Government) and Law Numer 25/1999 (Intergovernmental Finance). Both laws have changed the local public administration from a centralized into a decentralized system and also caused reform in some components such as planning, organization, personnel, and finance. Even though Law Number 22/1999 had been implemented for four years, the reform seemed very tardy. In fact, several regions showed a progress tendency that was the reverse of the expectation. For this reason, the question that will be formulated in this research is 'Why was there a different level of performance of local public administration reform after the local autonomy implementation in Indonesia?' The conceptual framework of this research is outlined as follows: it is presumed that the performance of Local Public Administration Reform is determinedby two major independent variables that are interrelated. These are the Central Government Role Variable and the Response of Local Government and its Environment toward the Reform. The Central Government Role consists of two variables Decentralization as an Architecture Reform Variable and the Policy Reform Variable. Both major variables interrelate with some varibles at the local level such as the Mayor/Regent's Role, the Response of Bureaucrats and Politicians to Local Public Administration Reform, and the Response of Civil Society to the Reform.